The Anniversary of the Fall of Fascism and Freedom Day is observed on July 28 annually in San Marino. San Marino is a small republic situated on the slopes of Mount Titano, on the Adriatic side of central Italy between the Marche and the Emilia-Romagna regions, and surrounded by the Republic of Italy.
This celebration is a public day there. It commemorates the end of the rule of the fascist party in San Marino on this day in 1943. During World War II, San Marino adopted a Fascist type of government.
History of Anniversary of the Fall of Fascism and Freedom Day
The end of the first war marked the start of a period of economic hardship for this tiniest of republics. The high unemployment rate and inflation led to the Sammarinese Fascist Party (P.F.S.) gaining control in 1923. Their control of power was reinforced by the success of Benito Mussolini’s fascist government in Italy.
San Marino adopted a Fascist type of government during the period of Mussolini’s rule in Italy. Although San Marino´s neutrality continued during World War II, Allied planes bombed it on June 26, 1944. This caused heavy material damage, especially to the railway line, and many people were killed. The resources of San Marino were sorely taxed to provide food and shelter for the over 100,000 refugees who obtained sanctuary during the war.
Moreover, neutrality did not protect the fortunes of the P.F.S. and, on July 25, 1943, having led Italy to several significant military defeats, Benito Mussolini was dismissed as the head of government in Italy and placed in custody. Three days later on July 28, the rule of the P.F.S. collapsed since the fate of Mussolini emboldened the people of San Marino to remove their fascist government. San Marino’s post-fascist position, the new government quickly reaffirmed its neutrality. However, this declaration of neutrality did not stop the allies from bombing San Marino and the Germans briefly occupying the country before the end of the war.
Anniversary of the Fall of Fascism and Freedom Day timeline
The Sammarinese Fascist Party (P.F.S.) gains control because of the high unemployment rate and inflation.
San Marino remains neutral but it is wrongly reported that it declares war on the U.K.
Benito Mussolini is dismissed as the head of government in Italy.
Despite its neutrality in World War II, Allied planes bombed it.
It is a coalition between the Sammarinese Communist Party and the Sammarinese Socialist Party.
Anniversary of the Fall of Fascism and Freedom Day FAQs
Is San Marino a part of Italy?
San Marino is one of the world’s smallest and oldest republics, but, technically, it is not part of Italy.
Who rules San Marino?
Paolo Rondelli was elected on April 1, 2022.
Does San Marino have a beach?
San Marino has beautiful beaches where you can spend the day.
How to Observe Anniversary of the Fall of Fascism and Freedom Day
Watch a movie about World War II
If you have never watched a movie about World War II, this is your opportunity. There are a lot of options available on Netflix for you to watch them.
This is also a day to raise awareness about the difficulties that people went through during World War II. You can share a post on social media with information about this time and this celebration of the holiday.
Take your day off
As stated, the Anniversary of the Fall of Fascism and Freedom Day is a public holiday in San Marino. So, you can take this opportunity to have a day off.
5 Interesting Facts About Fascism
The term ‘fascism’
It was Benito Mussolini that coined the term “fascism” in 1919 to describe his political movement.
Fascism is not easy to define
Scholars find it difficult to define this movement and the term ‘fascist’ has been used almost as an insult so much that it has diluted the meaning
Fascism is based on feelings
When fascism is characterized, it is characterized based on feelings rather than philosophical ideas.
A primary goal of fascism is autarky
This idea is also called ‘national self-sufficiency,’ however, as an economic system, fascism is socialism with a capitalist veneer.
Fascism is an array of ideas
Scholars define fascism as both a political movement and political practice.
Why Anniversary of the Fall of Fascism and Freedom Day is Important
It celebrates the end of the fascist regime
This anniversary celebrates the end of the fascist regime and the end of the Nazi occupation. This happened after World War II in 1945.
It commemorates the sacrifice and deaths of others
Every year the celebration of the sacrifice and death of hundreds of partisans is commemorated. Many people died during the first and second War World.
It is a day to spend time with your family
These kinds of festivities are usually celebrated with family. It is a day to eat a good meal and have a good time.
Anniversary of the Fall of Fascism and Freedom Day dates